Split a String by Special Characters in JavaScript


Borislav Hadzhiev

Last updated: Nov 18, 2021


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Split a String by Special Characters #

To split a string by special characters, call the split() method on the string, passing it a regular expression that matches any of the special characters as a parameter. The method will split the string on each occurrence of a special character and return an array containing the results.

const str = 'a.b-c=d/e_f'; const result = str.split(/[.\-=/_]/); // 👇️ ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd' ,'e' ,'f'] console.log(result);
If you're looking for a regular expression that matches all special characters, scroll down to the last example.

The only parameter we passed to the split method is a regular expression - a separator on which we want to split the string.

The forward slashes / / mark the beginning and end of the regular expression.

The square brackets [] are called a character class and match any of the characters between the brackets. You could adjust the characters to your needs.

The regular expression in the example matches a dot, hyphen, equal sign, forward slash and underscore.

Some characters, e.g. hyphens, or backslashes have to be escaped because they have a special meaning.
const str = 'z=a-b\\c'; const result = str.split(/[=\-\\]/); // 👇️ ['z', 'a', 'b', 'c'] console.log(result);

If you need to also split on a space, you can add a space between the square brackets.

const str = 'a.b c'; const result = str.split(/[. ]/); // 👇️ ['a', 'b', 'c'] console.log(result);

If you ever need help reading a regular expression, check this regex cheatsheet from MDN out.

Here's an example of a regular expression that splits the string on all special characters.

const str = 'a.b,c-d_e=f\\g/h'; const specialChars = /[`!@#$%^&*()_+\-=\[\]{};':"\\|,.<>\/?~]/; const result = str.split(specialChars); // 👇️ ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'g', 'h'] console.log(result);

The regular expression we used matches any special character. You could also add a space in the square brackets, if you consider a space to be a special character.

Conversely, you could also remove any of the characters between the brackets, if you don't consider them to be special characters.

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